Races emiliae and candidus suggested in HBW as possibly representing two separate species: emiliae most notably possesses greatly reduced wing spots (2), but otherwise appears to show only two minor differences, a smaller size (allow 1) and reduced (but not absent, contra HBW) white on forehead to nape side (1), with song not much differentiated#R, while candidus has strong white crown to nape and slightly whiter rump (3) but otherwise shows only slightly reduced wing spots (1); thus vocal evidence desirable. Nominate race intergrades with schistaceus in NE DRCongo. Proposed race sparsimguttatus, described from extreme NW Tanzania (Bukoba, on W L Victoria), treated as synonym of schistaceus. Six subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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