Has been considered conspecific with P. atriceps, but the two are sympatric in area of NC Chile (between Atacama and Coquimbo), where they rarely hybridize; sometimes thought conspecific with P. punensis, which it resembles in appearance. Range overlaps with that of P. patagonicus in various sites in Andes and NW Tierra del Fuego; some evidence of hybridization in latter, but the two species generally remain separate, and occupy different habitats. Small coastal race minor exhibits some plumage features intermediate between present species and P. patagonicus, and may be better included in latter on basis of its preference for forest or forest-edge habitat. Recent molecular evidence suggests that present species may be more closely related to the sister-species P. atriceps and P. punensis than to P. patagonicus#R or that P. patagonicus may be closer to atriceps and punensis#R. Nominate race in extreme N of range has particularly large bill, suggesting clinal variation in bill size. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!