Family New World Sparrows (Passerellidae)


Guadalupe Junco (Junco insularis)


French: Junco de Guadalupe German: Guadalupeammer Spanish: Junco de Guadalupe

Junco insularis


, 1876,

Isla Guadalupe, Baja California


Usually treated as conspecific with J. hyemalis, notably resembling J. h. mearnsi, but differs from all taxa in the hyemalis complex by its bluish-white vs pinkish bill (2); larger, longer bill (allow 2); shorter wings and tail (allow 1); evidently distinctive song#R, with significant differences from both J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus in number of different syllables (3), maximum frequency (ns), minimum frequency (ns) and number of repeated elements#R (3); and from the morphologically closest form J. h. mearnsi in its slightly darker grey crown and (usually) breast (1); white of belly duller and smaller in area (1); genetic evidence indicates a long separation from both J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus#R (vocal evidence places it closest to J. bairdi). Monotypic.

What do (1) and (2) mean? Learn more about the scoring system.

Guadalupe I, off NW Baja California (NW Mexico).

Descriptive notes

c. 14 cm; no published data on body mass. Outwardly most similar to J. hyemalis mearnsi. Relative to members of J. hyemalis complex, smaller body... read more


Differences in vocalizations of present species and those of mainland J. hyemalis... read more


Uses groves of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), Channel Island oak (Quercus... read more

Food and feeding

Little information. Consumes insects and seeds obtained mostly on the ground.


Few data. Season Jan–Jun; probably double-brooded on the basis of fledged young and nests with fresh eggs found in late Mar. Nests in... read more


Resident. May undergo short-distance changes in elevation seasonally.

Status and conservation

ENDANGERED. Present in Guadalupe Island EBA. Global population estimated at 75–250 individuals. Formerly one of the island’s most numerous landbirds. Numbers... read more

Recommended citation

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. & Marks, J.S. (2020). Guadalupe Junco (Junco insularis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 18 February 2020).