Cape of Good Hope; error = Chandernagor [Chandannagar], West Bengal, India.
Hitherto considered to include D. striatus (which see), and several other taxa may well merit elevation to species rank in view of differences among taxa in hair-crest presence, iris colour, and bill and tail structure; detailed analysis of morphology, voice (highly variable within taxa#R) and genetics required. Formerly considered conspecific with D. sumatranus, D. densus, D. menagei, D. montanus and D. bracteatus. Subspecies groups shown below are based on taxonomic splits made in recent field guide#R, which presents morphological and vocal differences to support separation; nevertheless, comprehensive analysis#R reveals that evaluation of vocal differences in this group is very difficult as vocabulary of each group (including mimicry) appears to be even wider than already known, and we therefore make only subspecies groups, rather than full splits at species level. Race banggaiensis sometimes synonymized with pectoralis or leucops, and seems closer to latter. Clinal decrease in size from N to S, birds in C India being similar to those of Myanmar and Thailand, intermediate between those of Himalayan foothills and those of S India (extreme length of male tail 149–164 mm in Himalayas, 132–155 in C India, 114–128 in SW India). Nominate race intergrades with brevirostris from S China (W Yunnan) and N Myanmar E to N Vietnam. Proposed race chrishna (Nepal foothills), allegedly larger than specimens from C & S India, appears indistinguishable from nominate; termeuleni (Jakarta Bay, in W Java) considered inseparable from jentincki, but further study required. Twelve subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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