Family Hawks, Eagles (Accipitridae)

Near Threatened

Hawaiian Hawk (Buteo solitarius)


French: Buse d’Hawaï German: Hawaiibussard Spanish: Busardo hawaiano

Buteo solitarius


, 1848,

Kealakelua Bay, Hawaii


Mistakenly identified as Onychotes gruberi, a new species from California, by Ridgway in 1885. A member of the B. brachyurus clade. Monotypic.


Hawaiian Is: known to breed only on main island of Hawaii, but vagrants seen on at least three other islands of archipelago (Maui, O’ahu and Kaua’i).

Descriptive notes

37–46 cm; 385–650 g, male average 441 g, female 606 g; wingspan 87–101 cm. Medium-sized, compact buzzard, with most pronounced sexual size dimorphism of its... read more


Gives piercing “keeee-up” in protracted series (c. 1 note per second), the notes... read more


Broad range of habitats at up to 2700 m, except very arid areas, from lowland agricultural... read more

Food and feeding

Varied diet, including mammals, especially introduced rodents but also small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), as well as... read more


Season Mar–Aug, although undulating display flights (by both sexes) have been recorded in virtually all months except Aug and Oct,... read more


Breeding adults generally sedentary: males typically remain within discrete home range (48–... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened. Currently considered Near Threatened. CITES II. Has very small population within tiny global range, breeding restricted to one island. According to... read more

Recommended citation

White, C.M., Kirwan, G.M. & Christie, D.A. (2020). Hawaiian Hawk (Buteo solitarius). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 20 January 2020).