Formerly placed in genus Tetrastes, but genetic evidence clearly places both present species and closely related B. sewerzowi in Bonasa together with North American B. umbellus#R, despite some behavioural differences between the American and the two Eurasian species#R. Occasional hybridization by present species with Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus muta and Lyrurus tetrix reported. Complex internal taxonomy, and assessment of variation made more difficult by existence of two colour morphs, grey and rufous, over much of range. Various attempts to lump races, e.g. sometimes only four recognized, with styriaca, rhenana and schiebeli placed in rupestris; volgensis and griseonota in bonasia; kolymensis in sibirica; and amurensis and yamashinai in vicinitas. Other proposed races include horicei and carpathicus (included in rupestris), and gilacorum and coreensis (included in amurensis). Twelve subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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