Family Vireos (Vireonidae)

Least Concern

Hutton's Vireo (Vireo huttoni)


French: Viréo de Hutton German: Huttonvireo Spanish: Vireo de Hutton

Vireo huttoni


, 1851,

Monterey, California, USA


Very wide genetic divergence between coastal nominate race and inland stephensi, suggesting perhaps distinct species; further study required. Likewise, form cognatus may be specifically distinct. Birds from S California and adjacent N Baja California sometimes recognized as race oberholseri. Proposed race insularis (Vancouver I, in W Canada) included in obscurus. Eleven subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • V. h. obscurus Anthony, 1891 – extreme SW Canada (SW British Columbia) S in W USA to NW California.
  • V. h. parkesi Rea, 1991 – NW California (S to Marin County).
  • V. h. sierrae Rea, 1991 – N & C Sierra Nevada, in E California.
  • V. h. huttoni Cassin, 1851 – Hutton's Vireo – W California from Monterey S along coast to NW Baja California, also Santa Rosa I and Santa Cruz I.
  • V. h. unitti Rea, 1991 – Santa Catalina I (SW California).
  • V. h. cognatus Ridgway, 1903 – S Baja California, in W Mexico.
  • V. h. stephensi Brewster, 1882 – Stephens's Vireo – SW USA (C & E Arizona, SW New Mexico) S in Sierra Madre to Zacatecas, in C Mexico.
  • V. h. carolinae H. W. Brandt, 1938 – S USA (SW Texas) and E Mexico (S to SC Zacatecas and NW Hidalgo).
  • V. h. pacificus A. R. Phillips, 1966 – SW Mexico (Nayarit S to SW Jalisco).
  • V. h. mexicanus Ridgway, 1903 – S Mexico (C & SW México S to N Oaxaca).
  • V. h. vulcani Griscom, 1930 – SW Guatemala.
  • Birds of uncertain race in Chiapas (S Mexico) and adjacent W Guatemala possibly belong to mexicanus.

    Descriptive notes

    13 cm; 9–15·1 g. Nominate race has lores and eyering pale grey-white (pale "spectacles" on face); otherwise dull grey-brown above, slightly paler on... read more


    Sings through much of year, with peak early Feb to mid-Apr. Much variation among individuals and... read more


    Evergreen forest with moderate to dense crown closure and understorey, tree species including... read more

    Food and feeding

    Food predominantly arthropods, including bugs (Hemiptera), butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera) and spiders (Araneae... read more


    Nesting begins early, in first week Feb in California, later farther N; generally single-brooded, although some evidence of occasional... read more


    Generally regarded as non-migratory, but some obvious movements do occur; although present in most... read more

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Frequently common or abundant in suitable habitats. One estimate in California of 15·6 breeding pairs/40 ha. Breeding Bird Surveys indicate some... read more

    Recommended citation

    Brewer, D. (2019). Hutton's Vireo (Vireo huttoni). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 26 April 2019).