Hitherto considered conspecific with “C. nipalensis” (when this was split from C. javensis), although separation recently mooted#R; differs in its barring on lower breast and belly in male (3); barring on entire underparts up to chin in female (vague in other taxa, which in any case have grey chin to breast) (2); seemingly smaller size than all other taxa (at least 1); and different voice (here assuming that unsampled layardi resembles nominate), reaching higher frequencies (at least 2) and having a predominantly rising note shape vs fairly flat or up-and-down plateau (1)#R. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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