C. vulgaris japonica
Temminck and Schlegel, 1849,
Closely related to C. coturnix, and possibly also to C. pectoralis. Has been considered a race of C. coturnix, but the two are apparently sympatric in Mongolia; they also differ vocally, and in biometrics, throat-feather structure and migration strategy#R; small numbers collected in winter in NE India (mainly Manipur) appear intermediate between the two species#R. Siberian population sometimes separated as race ussuriensis, but differences from Japanese populations considered trivial. Monotypic.
Breeds in E Asia, from N Mongolia NE through Baikal region to Vitim region of EC Russia, E to Sakhalin I, and S to Japan, Korea and NE China (E Shandong); also (presumably) in Bhutan#R; may breed in Myanmar. Winters S from C Japan and C China W through NW Thailand and N Myanmar to NE India (Assam) and Bhutan, with small numbers as far N as Buryatia and Ussuriland (Russia) in mild winters. Records from NW Bangladesh usually ascribed to C. coturnix, but may be applicable to present species.
Introduced to Hawaiian Is, Reunion and Italy.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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