Formerly treated as conspecific with M. alba, even though the two breed sympatrically in Japan; nevertheless, recent genetic evidence indicates present species is nested in latter, albeit with low support#R. Both species thought to be closely related to M. maderaspatensis, M. samveasnae and M. aguimp, although recent analyses of mitochondrial DNA suggest that last species is more distantly related to this group. Monotypic.
Japan (Hokkaido to Kyushu, including Sado I and Oki Is) and S Korea#R; non-breeding visitor to Izu Is and Ryukyu Is, occasionally E China and Taiwan.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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