Temminck and Schlegel, 1845,
Decima, Nagasaki, Japan.
Sometimes considered conspecific with either or both of Z. meyeni and Z. palpebrosus; hybrids with Z. palpebrosus found in S China and N Vietnam; sometimes only N race batanis of Z. meyeni placed within present species. Affinity to Z. erythropleurus unclear. Geographical variation possibly partly clinal, as N races large, dark and have somewhat brownish or buffy flanks, whereas smallest and brightest races occur in S of range (Hainan), but apparently a marked difference between island and continental forms, latter being smaller, with much paler, buffier flanks and typically yellow lores and frons (and race hainanus notably small); further study required. Races stejnegeri and alani interbreed in Ogasawara (Bonin) Is (where both introduced); hybrids named as boninsimae. Other proposed races are yesoensis (described from Muroran, on Hokkaido), which is synonymized with nominate, and, in S Ryukyus, iriomotensis (Iriomote) and yokakuni (Yonaguni), which are subsumed into loochooensis. Eight subspecies recognized.
Races stejnegeri and alani introduced on Ogasawara (Bonin) Is, where both interbreed. Nominate race introduced in Singapore and Hawaii (established on all the main islands).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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