Family Waxbills (Estrildidae)


Java Sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora)


French: Padda de Java German: Reisamadine Spanish: Capuchino arrocero de Java

Loxia oryzivora


, 1758,

“Asia and Ethiopia” = Java


See remarks under L. fuscata. Monotypic.


Java and Bali. Widely introduced elsewhere: Sumatra, Bawean, Borneo, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sulawesi, Philippines, Caroline Is, Japan, SE China, Taiwan, Myanmar (Arakan and Tenasserim, perhaps extirpated), Thailand (N Bangkok, Phuket I), Vietnam, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore (perhaps extirpated), India, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Tanzania (including Zanzibar and Pemba), Seychelles, Cocos Is, Christmas I, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Hawaiian Is, Florida, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, St Helena I.

Descriptive notes

15–16 cm; 22·5–27·8 g. Male has forehead, crown, lores, chin and upper throat black, black line around conspicuous white lower face; upperparts pale bluish grey... read more


Calls include low churring “tup, t-luk” or “ch-luk”, a sharp “tak... read more


Open grassland and wilderness ground, cultivations (especially rice fields), open woodland; also... read more

Food and feeding

Cereal crops, especially rice, also other grass seeds, spilled grain, seeds of flowering plants, including bamboo and Lantana camara... read more


Breeds at end of rainy season, Apr–Aug on Java and Bali; introduced populations Sept–Feb (and one egg record Jun and... read more


Resident or nomadic. Post-breeding flocks often make substantial short-distance movements in... read more

Status and conservation

ENDANGERED. CITES II. Very uncommon and local. Population in native range fewer than 10,000 individuals; decreasing. Has declined greatly in its original range as a result of... read more

Recommended citation

Payne, R. & Sharpe, C.J. (2019). Java Sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 7 December 2019).