Family Starlings (Sturnidae)

Critically Endangered

Javan Pied Starling (Gracupica jalla)


French: Étourneau jallak German: Javastar Spanish: Estornino pío de Java

Pastor Jalla


, 1821,



Hitherto treated as conspecific with G. contra, but differs in its uniform whitish-yellow bill vs two-tone orange/whitish-yellow bill (3); large naked orange face patch vs orange eyering (2); bare reddish vs white feathered lores (2). Differs further from G. c. contra in its browner back (ns[1]); whiter underparts (ns[1]); and shorter tail (effect size −1.63, score 1); from G. c. superciliaris in its lack of white streaks on frontal crown (ns[2]); whiter underparts (ns[1]); and longer wing (effect size 2.45, score 2); and from G. c. floweri in its lack of white streaks on crown (3 [consequently discounting score of 2 for lores]); browner back (ns[1]); and shorter tail (effect size −2.56, score 2). Monotypic.


Few recent records of wild birds from Java; formerly E Sumatra (Lampung, where perhaps introduced). Probably extinct in the wild#R.

Descriptive notes

22 cm. Medium-sized starling with feathers of forehead and crown hackled, those of hindcrown and nape elongated; extensive bare skin around eye continuing anteriorly to lores... read more


Song, by both sexes, a prolonged series of phrases with shrill churrs and a few croaking and... read more


Open areas with scattered trees, cultivated areas and human habitation, savannas. Lowlands.

Food and feeding

Omnivorous; diet includes animal food, fruit, nectar and flowers, and seeds. Forages predominantly on ground in grassland and on fields;... read more


Following details refer to earlier years, when this species was far more numerous. Season Sept–Oct. Sometimes in loose colonies, generally... read more



Status and conservation

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED. Formerly common in E Sumatra (Lampung province), Java and Bali, but now virtually extirpated. Common in Lampung in 1975–1977, but no recent Sumatran... read more

Recommended citation

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N., Sharpe, C.J. & Christie, D.A. (2020). Javan Pied Starling (Gracupica jalla). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 February 2020).