Almora Hills, Kumaon, India.
Proposed race bethelae (from Kulu Valley, in NW India) is regarded as a clinal form of biddulphi. Many other races are regarded as intergrades, raising doubts about validity of subspecific taxonomy; a morph of darwini without chestnut band on underparts was considered a different race, “styani”. Some authors have divided subspecies into three geographically isolated groups each encompassing considerable variation, i.e. “Himalayan group”, including macrolopha, castanea, biddulphi (with bethelae) and nipalensis, “Golden-collared group”, with xanthospila, meyeri and ruficollis, and “Eastern group”, including darwini and joretiana; whether these have any taxonomic significance remains to be seen. Nine subspecies usually recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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