Closest relatives appear to be P. rabieri, P. xanthopygaeus and P. viridanus#R. Often considered conspecific with last of those, but may be separated by habitat, although some possible overlap in this respect; further study needed. S & E populations tend to have more bronze tinge on upperparts, and rump colour tends more towards orange in E, but much individual variation, and racial separation considered unwarranted. Proposed races eisenhoferi (N Thailand), eurous (SE Thailand and Cambodia), connectens (Langkawi I, off NW Peninsular Malaysia) and limitans (Kangean Is) considered unacceptable. Monotypic.
E Myanmar E to extreme S China (S Yunnan) and S through most of Indochina to W & S Peninsular Malaysia, E Sumatra (including Lingga Archipelago), Java, Bali and Kangean Is.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!