Until recently considered conspecific with X. guttatus and previously also with X. susurrans (see both species). New molecular review#R proposes that these be treated as three full species, which also present subtle differences in morphology and vocalizations. The “eytoni group”, sometimes considered a separate species, is also distinct vocally; but molecular data suggest that this group and “guttatoides group” form a monophyletic clade, a hypothesis supported by fact that vicinalis is phenotypically and genetically intermediate between guttatoides and eytoni. Birds in N Bolivia, placed in dorbignyanus, show signs of intergradation with nominate. Birds of Ceará often treated as race gracilirostris, but appear inseparable from eytoni#R. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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