Formerly included in C. coronoides, and listed as C. levaillantii in some older literature. Vocal and morphometric variation has produced recent strong trend to elevate many taxa to species level; nevertheless, while break-up almost inevitable, it seems preferable to await a comprehensive integrative review that can establish fully evidence-based species limits. Small race culminatus differs most strongly from all other forms owing to its much higher-pitched voice and more grating than nasal tones, but in recent study four species tentatively proposed: “C. japonensis” (with races mandshuricus, connectens, osai, tibetosinensis and intermedius), “C. levaillantii” (with culminatus and colonorum), “C. macrorhynchos” and “C. philippinus”. Subsequently, however, osai and connectens found to be not closely related to N Japanese forms, and, indeed, japonensis and mandshuricus behave as two species where they meet in C Sakhalin; furthermore, vocal repertoire of osai includes short, emphatic “quacking” calls that are higher-pitched than calls of other races. Race intermedius intergrades with tibetosinensis. Other proposed races are hondoensis and borealis (subsumed into japonensis), andamanensis (in levaillantii), anthracinus (in culminatus), hassi, mengtszensis and hainanus (in colonorum) and timoriensis (in nominate). One or two of these, especially anthracinus (Sri Lanka) and andamanensis (Andamans), could well be resurrected following review. Eleven subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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