Closely related to C. atripennis, C. andamanicus, C. manillensis and C. celebensis, and all five were formerly considered conspecific, andamanicus having only recently been separated. Race salvadorii was earlier sometimes synonymized with nominate, but merits recognition. Race schlegelii includes schillmolleri (N Moluccas and W Papuan Is), obiensis (NC Moluccas), mesophanis (S Moluccas), oberholseri (W Lesser Sundas), kuehni (Kai Is and Tanimbar Is), yorki (Bismarck Archipelago to N Australia) and meeki (Louisiade Archipelago). Subspecies albonotatus includes noctivigilus (Punjab). In the past, birds of SE Asia were occasionally separated as race ambiguus and those of Hainan I as race hainanus; both now included in bimaculatus, which also includes silvanus (Naga Hills of NE India). Six subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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