Moonda River, Gabon.
Relationships uncertain. In the past, I. willcocksi, I. meliphilus and even I. minor were often confused with present species, and I. pumilio, too, was on occasion linked with present species. Nominate race and pachyrhynchus intergrade in broad zone from E Central African Republic and SW Sudan to NE DRCongo and W Uganda, where precise limits of respective ranges unclear. Form leona, known from a single immature taken near Freetown (Sierra Leone), now considered a synonym of nominate. Specimens from N Liberia (Wonegizi) said to be very similar to I. willcocksi ansorgei from neighbouring Guinea-Bissau, possibly representing undescribed race of present species; alternatively, they may be referable to I. willcocksi. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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