Knysna, Cape Province.
São Tomé race simplex often treated (e.g. HBW) as a full species, because it differs markedly in voice, with playback of calls to birds on Príncipe and African mainland eliciting no response; however, further research is needed to establish the significance of this finding, as part of a review of all currently recognized subspecies. Some authors, in recognizing the two species, have placed all W African populations (and sometimes birds of race jacksoni) in A. simplex (other West African populations differ morphologically in only minor ways from simplex), retaining E & S African birds only in A. larvata; in this case, populations of all Gulf of Guinea islands might be more appropriately placed in A. simplex (but while Pagalu birds are like simplex those on Príncipe more resemble E African taxa). Much confusion and uncertainty too at subspecific level: birds of S Cameroon tend to be somewhat darker and have been designated race plumbescens, but doubtfully valid; Liberian population poorly known, and subspecific identity disputed; birds of Bioko and Pagalu have sometimes been awarded separate races, poensis and hypoleuca respectively. Race samaliyae misspelt samiliyae in HBW. If present species is placed in Columba, name inornata is preoccupied and must be replaced with hypoleuca (if Pagalu birds considered same race as those of mainland); however, with recent transfer of all New World Columba to genus Patagioenas, the synonymy disappears, and inornata would again become the correct name for the W African populations of present species#R. Seven subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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