Usually treated as conspecific with R. flammigerus, and genetic differences apparently minimal; moreover, owing to recent deforestation the two taxa now reportedly meet and interbreed in W Andes of Colombia (along a narrow but stable band at middle elevations on upper Pacific slope); even so, visual divergence striking. No races of present species described, but females and immatures from W Ecuador are more olive, less brown or grey, above than those farther N; further research required. Monotypic.
Panama from Caribbean slope in Bocas del Toro E across both slopes (from foothills of Veraguas) to Colombia (N base of W Andes, lower Cauca Valley and E to middle Magdalena Valley from Santander S to N Tolima, and on W slope of E Andes) and S along Pacific coast to SW Ecuador (Guayas, El Oro, W Loja) and adjacent NW Peru (Tumbes).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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