Statius Müller, 1776,
Previously placed in genus Acanthis. Was until recently considered conspecific with C. flammea, and evidence from mitochondrial DNA suggests that the two, together with C. hornemanni, are probably best regarded as closely related sister-species or forming a superspecies; despite wide genetic variation within their ranges, however, recent studies have found little support for lineage division between arctic-breeding and boreal-breeding redpolls, and comprehensive review of gene flow still required in order to determine species limits; pending conclusions of any review, may need to be reclassified within Acanthis. Present species has hybridized with C. flammea and C. cannabina. Birds from Argyll, in SW Scotland, described as race disruptis on basis of more tawny-brown upperparts with purer black streaks, but differences small and within range of individual variation of species, and considered insufficient to warrant naming of geographical races. Monotypic.
Breeds British Is, SW Norway, S Sweden, Denmark, and N & NE France E to S Belgium and Netherlands; also N & C Germany, Alps (from SE France E to Austria) and Carpathians (SE Czech Republic and S Poland, possibly also N Romania). Widespread in NC & S Europe in non-breeding season.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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