C. L. Brehm, 1831,
Previously placed in Aquila. Closely related to C. clanga, but specific status confirmed by genetic and morphological studies. The two hybridize regularly#R#R. Has been thought to be closely related to Hieraaetus wahlbergi, but more research needed. Formerly considered conspecific with C. hastata, which is now a full species owing to several traits: brown vs yellow/amber iris (3); darker brown head having black shaft streaks (1); paler brown undertail coverts (1); and much larger gape (mean for females 60·1 mm vs 52·3 mm in length, 47·4 mm vs 37·4 mm in width; score at least 2)#R. Monotypic.
C, E & SE Europe through Turkey and Caucasus to S Caspian lowlands; E limit not well known, and breeding attempts as far W as NE Spain#R. Winters in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from Sudan S to E Angola, NE Namibia, N Botswana and NE South Africa.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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