Closely related to H. pileatus and H. schulzii; interbreeds with latter. Hitherto considered conspecific with H. fuscipennis, but differs in its glossy black vs dark brown plumage (3); clear-cut black rather than blurry brown bars on belly (2); larger size (strongest difference in tail, with effect size 4.6, score 2). Large degree of individual variation exists among all populations. Race erythrops, previously regarded as a separate species, is perhaps only a variable morph. Additional described races are obsoletus (Sonora), petersi (Tamaulipas), mesorhynchus (Costa Rica), nuperus (Santa Marta, in N Colombia), improcerus (Bahia, in E Brazil) and fulcitus (Chaco, in Argentina), all considered insufficiently differentiated to be accepted. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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