Sometimes considered conspecific with Z. albifacies and Z. chiriquensis. Birds from NE Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago have sometimes been placed in race trinitatis, with those of Paria Peninsula occasionally further separated as race pariae (virtually identical to trinitatis#R); those of Santa Marta Mts in race infusca. Monotypic.
C & NE Colombia (Cauca Valley, Santa Marta, Santa Elena, C & E Andes) to W & N Venezuela (Mérida, Cerro de Ávila, Cumbre de Valencia, Paria Peninsula), and Trinidad and Tobago.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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