DNA sequences suggest close phylogenetic relationship to the Little Brown Bustard (Heterotetrax humilis)#R. E birds have been awarded race orientalis on grounds of larger size and greyer, more heavily marked upperparts; but much individual variation and considerable overlap between populations. Monotypic.
Morocco and Iberia to France, Sardinia and SE Italy (possibly now extinct); Ukraine and SW Russia through Kazakhstan to Kyrgyzstan and extreme NW China; extreme N Iran. Winters from Mediterranean zone through Turkey and Caucasus to Iran, and erratically elsewhere in S Asia.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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