Krain, Carniola, Slovenia.
Probably closest to A. brama. Race lilith, shown in recent studies to differ in DNA and vocal patterns, may be a separate species, and treated as such by one recent author (who claimed sympatric occurrence with A. n. indigena, glaux and bactriana)#R, although not by authors of very recent major checklist#R; paler than other races, less streaked below and with more distinct occipital face, but sympatry rather than intergradation with bactriana unclear#R and vocal evidence not established. Race spilogastra (with somaliensis) recently treated as a separate species on account of smaller size yet longer toes and “zoogeographical aspects” plus the comment that voice “said to differ”#R, but far better evidence required; examination of toes in NHMUK does not suggest significant difference. Likewise, plumipes said to be genetically distinct#R, and has been treated as a separate species#R; further study required. Many races considered probably intermediate populations or reflection of individual variation, while geographical subspecific boundaries obscure, with many intergrading populations: vidalii and indigena intergrade over wide area in NW Russia; nominate noctua intergrades with vidalii over wide area from S France E to Czech and Slovak Republics, and with indigena in former Yugoslavia; indigena and vidalii intergrade in N Ukraine, Belarus and C Russia; lilith intergrades with saharae in Saudi Arabia and with bactriana in Iraq; bactriana intergrades also with ludlowi in W Himalayas (Ladakh). Race saharae sometimes subsumed within glaux. Corsican and Sardinian populations perhaps warrant subspecific status (as sarda), this being supported by DNA data#R. Proposed races kessleri and caucasica synonymous with indigena; solitudinis synonymous with saharae; in Europe, grueni and cantabriensis subsumed within vidalii and salentina and daciae in nominate. Thirteen subspecies recognized.
Introduced, just outside natural range, to Britain; also to New Zealand.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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