A geographically variable species, particularly in plumage coloration; large repertoire of songs and calls, some described only from particular areas#R. Several of listed races are clearly transitional; modestus intergrades with capnodes near Volcán de Chiriquí, and panamensis with caucae in extreme NE Chocó (NW Colombia)#R. Detailed revision required. Fourteen subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!