Family Ducks, Geese, Swans (Anatidae)


Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis)


French: Harelde kakawi German: Eisente Spanish: Pato havelda
Other common names: Oldsquaw

Anas hyemalis


, 1758,

Arctic Europe and America




Circumpolar, breeding on Arctic coasts of North America (Alaska, Canada and Greenland), Europe (Scandinavia) and Asia (Russia). Winters S as far as Oregon, Great Lakes and N Carolina in USA, SW Greenland, Iceland, Britain, Baltic and North Seas, and in Pacific from Kamchatka S to Korea; also several inland areas.

Descriptive notes

Male 51–60 cm (of which tail up to 15 cm), female 37–47 cm; male c. 650–900 g, female 550–800 g; wingspan 65–82 cm. Unmistakable. Has Anas... read more


Rather vocal, even in winter, in flocks, calls very distinctive and considered “outstanding among... read more


Breeds on small tundra lakes, pools, bogs, rivers and coastal sites of high Arctic, but generally... read more

Food and feeding

Mostly crustaceans, molluscs, other marine invertebrates (echinoderms, worms), fish and, in fresh water, insects and their larvae; also a... read more


Starts May/Jun; at Churchill (Manitoba) laying typically initiated 3–23 Jun, but occasionally from late May in N Europe. Long-term or... read more


Migratory, moving in large flocks at night (including overland, e.g. from White Sea to Gulf of... read more

Status and conservation

VULNERABLE. Monitoring data from Baltic Sea, where W Siberian and N European populations winter indicate significant decline since early 1990s at least. Total world... read more

Recommended citation

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2020). Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 25 February 2020).