Formerly treated as conspecific with L. bellicosus or with both latter and L. defilippii. Birds intermediate between nominate race and catamarcanus said to occur in W Argentina, and range listed for latter is tentative; detailed study required. Geographical variation partly clinal; size appears to increase from N to S and in Andean highlands. If present species and L. militaris [= Emberiza militaris Linnaeus, 1758] are treated in separate genera, present species reverts to its older specific epithet, militaris [= Sturnus militaris Linnaeus, 1771], which has priority over loyca. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!