Sometimes considered conspecific with either or both of Z. japonicus and Z. palpebrosus; occasionally only N race batanis is placed within Z. japonicus; research needed into species limits in this complex. In Philippines, population recently discovered on Mindoro of uncertain racial identity, provisionally included in nominate; birds from Marinduque described as race gilli, and formerly placed with Z. montanus, but now regarded as a synonym of nominate race of present species. Originally named as Dicaeum flavum, but that name preoccupied. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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