Family Hornbills (Bucerotidae)

Least Concern

Luzon Hornbill (Penelopides manillae)


French: Calao de Manille German: Luzon-Tariktikhornvogel Spanish: Cálao chico de Luzón
Other common names: Luzon Tarictic Hornbill

Buceros Manillæ


, 1783,

Manila, Luzon, Philippines


Original spelling of species name seems to be “manilloe”, but appearance of diphthongs in original typescripts varies, and internal evidence from same work clearly indicates author’s intended name to have been “manillae”. Present species formerly considered conspecific with P. panini, P. affinis and P. mindorensis (see P. panini). Two subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. m. manillae (Boddaert, 1783) – Luzon, Marinduque, Catanduanes and adjacent islets, in N Philippines.
  • P. m. subniger McGregor, 1910 – Polillo Is (Polillo, Patnanongan), in N Philippines.
  • Descriptive notes

    45 cm; male 395–479 g, female 470–475 g. Small hornbill with prominently ridged bill. Male nominate race creamy on head, neck and underparts, blackish ear-coverts... read more


    A repeated, nasal “tuc” or “ta-ruc”, often extended to “ta-ruc-tuc-tuc-tuc-tuc” (hence its... read more


    Primary evergreen dipterocarp forest in lowlands, riverine forest, and even single fruiting trees... read more

    Food and feeding

    Figs and other fruits recorded, but probably also eats insects and other small animals. Occurs in small groups of up to 15 birds.


    Lays in Mar–Apr. Monogamous, some with immature helpers from previous season, and territorial. Nest in natural cavity in large forest... read more


    Apparently sedentary and territorial.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. CITES II. Previously considered Near-threatened. ­Restricted-range species: present in Luzon EBA. Was formerly common on Luzon, and appears still... read more

    Recommended citation

    Kemp, A.C. & Boesman, P. (2019). Luzon Hornbill (Penelopides manillae). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 20 July 2019).