Family Ducks, Geese, Swans (Anatidae)

Least Concern

Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata)


French: Canard mandarin German: Mandarinente Spanish: Pato mandarín

Anas galericulata


, 1758,



Sometimes placed in genus Dendronessa. Monotypic.


Scattered in Russian Ussuriland, Sakhalin I, NE China, Korea, Japan. Continental populations winter in S China.

Introduced in Britain and several countries of C Europe, also in USA.

Descriptive notes

41–51 cm; male 571–693 g, female 428–608 g; wingspan 68–74 cm. Male Male swimming has eclipse plumage, but in breeding plumage is completely... read more


Generally rather quiet, usually vocalizing only when disturbed or in courtship: male calls mainly... read more


Pools, lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps surrounded by dense deciduous forest. Has a preference for... read more

Food and feeding

Seeds, particularly nuts, acorns, sweet chestnut, beechmast and grain, aquatic plants and animal food (land snails, frogs, tadpoles,... read more


Starts Apr in England and Russia, but apparently not until Jun in Japan; in NE China egg-laying occurred 22 Apr to 11 Jun in one study.... read more


Asian population essentially migratory, wintering at lower latitudes in E, C & S China, as well... read more

Status and conservation

Not globally threatened (Least Concern). At present, majority of Asian population, which was estimated at just 6100–6600 pairs in mid 1980s, occurs in Japan, with... read more

Recommended citation

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2019). Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 12 December 2019).