J. F. Gmelin, 1788,
Closely related to C. ferrugineus, with which has been considered conspecific. Up to 13 races sometimes recognized: palloris (coast from W Mexico to Panama); continentalis (coast from E Mexico to Panama); maynardi (S Florida and Bahamas); cozumelae (Cozumel I); teres (Greater Antilles except Jamaica); caymanensis (Cayman Is); nesiotes (Jamaica); abbotti (Providencia I, San Andrés I); and, in Lesser Antilles, rileyi (Barbuda, Antigua), dominicae (Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica), vincentis (Martinique, St Lucia, St Vincent) and grenadensis (Bequia, Grenada), with nominate restricted to N South America. All of these, however, were based on small sample sizes; larger series now available reveal no constant differences in colour or size among island populations in West Indies, or between island and continental populations. Monotypic.
Caribbean parts of Florida S through Bahamas to Greater and Lesser Antilles, and Mexico (Sinaloa and Tamaulipas to Yucatán and Oaxaca) S through Central America to Colombia, then E to estuary of R Amazon; Trinidad.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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