Until recently considered conspecific with S. granti but breeds sympatrically and assortatively with it, differing in its yellow (not orange) bill and lesser sexual dimorphism; also differs in foraging preference, feeding at sea and not concentrating near shores; and in typical use of flat areas not steep slopes for nesting. Hybridization with S. leucogaster has been recorded. Races vary clinally in size, becoming larger eastwards from Atlantic, with largest forms occurring in E Pacific. Birds of NE Pacific sometimes separated as race californica, but extensive individual variation means no consistent significant differences detected, so best treated as a synonym of personata#R; birds of SE Indian Ocean occasionally separated as race bedouti, but likewise probably indistinguishable from personata. Recently described form fullagari is synonymous with tasmani; latter name was previously applied to a form mistakenly believed extinct (Tasman Booby, S. tasmani), which has now been reclassified on basis of morphological and genetic data as a race of present species#R,#R. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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