J. T. Zimmer, 1943,
Cutucú, 2000 m, near Macas, Zamora, Ecuador.
Colombian populations of present species seem to exhibit constant differences in plumage and bill colour from those in rest of range, and may represent a separate taxon; further study required. Currently treated as monotypic.
Several apparently disjunct populations: in Colombia on both slopes of C Andes in S Antioquía, Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío, Tolima and N Valle del Cauca; in Ecuador at scattered locations in W Napo, W Morona-Santiago, Zamora-Chinchipe and S Loja; and in Peru in E Piura, Cajamarca, San Martín and Huánuco.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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