P. L. Sclater and Salvin, 1871,
near Mérida, Venezuela.
Until recently considered conspecific with A. albofrenatus, but differs in its all-yellow throat (sometimes with vestigial black malar line) vs narrow white throat with thick black malars (3); broad vs narrow white submoustachial stripe (2); rufous of crown extending to bill (no or vestigial black above bill) vs broad black forehead (2); clearly divergent trilled song#R (at least 2). Monotypic.
Andes of Mérida and E Táchira, in W Venezuela.
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