French: Faucon émerillon German: Merlin Spanish: Esmerejón
America = South Carolina, USA
Subspecies and Distribution
F. c. subaesalon
C. L. Brehm, 1827 – Iceland.
F. c. aesalon
Tunstall, 1771 – N Eurasia from Faeroes E to C Siberia.
F. c. insignis
(A. H. Clark, 1907) – Siberia E of R Yenisey to R Anadyr#R.
F. c. pacificus
(Stegmann, 1929) – Russian Far East, including Sakhalin I.
F. c. pallidus
(Sushkin, 1900) – steppes of Asia, from S Ural Mts (near Aral Sea) E to NE Kazakhstan (Altai Mts).
F. c. lymani
Bangs, 1913 – mountains of C Asia from Pamir-Alai range to Altai and E to Transbaikalia and Mongolia.
F. c. suckleyi
Ridgway, 1874 – Pacific coast of North America from S Alaska and British Columbia S to N Washington.
F. c. columbarius
Linnaeus, 1758 – Alaska (except coast) E through S & C Canada to Newfoundland and S (except Great Plains) to N USA.
F. c. richardsonii
Ridgway, 1871 – Great Plains of North America (from C Alberta S to Wyoming).
24–32 cm; male 125–234 g, female 155–300 g; wingspan 53–73 cm. Distinctive small, stocky, dashing falcon. Male has upperparts dark or pale bluish,... read more
Mainly silent, except in vicinity of nest. Main call a fast accelerating series of notes, “kee..kee... read more
Extremely varied, from sea-level up to treeline at 3000 m in some mountain ranges, from boreal... read more
Food and feeding
Chiefly small birds under 50 g during breeding season, with Merlins in SE Scotland being heavily dependent on Meadow Pipits (Anthus... read more
Nests mainly in Mar–Jun; study in SE Scotland recorded egg-laying from fourth week of Apr to first week of Jun. Solitary. Nest... read more
Migratory, except populations in Iceland, British Is, locally in C Asian mountains, Pacific NW in... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). CITES II. Status of Asian races not satisfactorily documented. Between 1960 and 1970s, significant accumulations of chlorinated... read more
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