Sometimes considered closely related to L. delawarensis, but morphometric analysis links it instead with L. melanocephalus. L. glaucus is a synonym. Possible hybrids with L. delawarensis, with L. ridibundus and with L. melanocephalus recorded. Form camtschatchensis sometimes treated as a separate species; interbreeds with race heinei in Siberia; previously listed as kamtschatschensis, but this dates from two years later, and in any case is a nomen nudum#R. Nominate canus and heinei may together represent a separate species from North American brachyrhynchus, although camtschatchensis seems to be intermediate between the two groups. Race brachyrhynchus recently treated as separate species#R, but the characters indicated are all minor and consistent with subspecies status. Taxonomic study needed. Proposed race stegmanni is synonymized with heinei. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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