Family Hornbills (Bucerotidae)

Least Concern

Mindanao Hornbill (Penelopides affinis)


French: Calao de Mindanao German: Mindanao-Tariktikhornvogel Spanish: Cálao chico de Mindanao
Other common names: Mindanao Tarictic Hornbill

Penelopides affinis


, 1877,

Mindanao, Philippines


Formerly considered conspecific with P. panini, P. mindorensis and P. manillae (see P. panini). Race samarensis sometimes treated as separate species, but only slightly distinct, involving size and shading on uppertail-coverts and tail; further study needed. Three subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. a. samarensis Steere, 1890 – Samar Hornbill – EC Philippines: Samar, Calicoan, Biliran, Leyte and Bohol.
  • P. a. affinis Tweeddale, 1877 – Mindanao Hornbill – SE Philippines: Dinagat, Siargao, Bucas and Mindanao.
  • P. a. basilanicus Steere, 1890 – Basilan (S Philippines).
  • Descriptive notes

    45 cm; male 456–554 g, female 394–514 g. Small hornbill with ridged lower mandible. Male of nominate race has much of plumage creamy, with black ear-­coverts... read more


    A repeated, nasal “tuc” or “ta-ruc”, often extended to “ta-ruc-tuc-tuc-tuc-tuc” (hence its... read more


    Occupies primary evergreen forest, including edges of clearings and secondary forest, occurring up... read more

    Food and feeding

    Fruit, seeds, beetles and lizards recorded. Forages in middle and lower levels of forest, sometimes in groups of up to 12 birds.


    Little known. Birds in breeding condition in Apr–May. Usually recorded in pairs or small flocks. In captivity: both sexes sealed nest... read more


    Apparently sedentary and territorial.

    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. CITES II. Previously considered Near-threatened. ­Restricted-range species: present in Mindanao and the Eastern Visayas EBA. Still common in... read more

    Recommended citation

    Kemp, A.C. & Boesman, P. (2019). Mindanao Hornbill (Penelopides affinis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 22 July 2019).