#R, no locality = Bogotá, Colombia.
Genetic data#R do not support proposed sister relationship with A. variegaticeps, race temporalis of which sometimes included in present species. Race perijana perhaps restricted to E slope of Sierra de Perijá, as specimen from W slope indistinguishable from nominate#R; clarification required. Plumage variation in Andes appears to be clinal, redder-backed C Peruvian populations of montana approaching appearance of yungae, specimens from Ayacucho more or less intermediate, also specimens from Bolivia (Cochabamba) darker than those from S Peru and specimens from La Paz intermediate; quantitative analysis, including specimens from gaps in current samples, would likely reveal rather smooth clinal variation from S Colombia to Bolivia or, alternatively, a number of diagnosable populations that are currently without taxonomic recognition. Proposed race jelskii (from C Peru) is based on discoloured specimen of montana. Six subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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