Dande River, Luanda, Angola.
Has been regarded as conspecific with M. blanchoti (further study needed), and nominate race has been considered a colour morph of M. cruentus. Known in Cameroon by much larger-billed race perspicillatus, based on single specimen, which may in fact be a colour morph of M. gladiator; historical specimen from Kivu, in E DRCongo, cautiously attributed to perspicillatus; single specimen (now lost) from Kakamega, in SW Kenya, resembled both nominate race of present species and race catharoxanthus of M. blanchoti. Two subspecies provisionally recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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