Traditionally thought to form a species-group with N. bartelsi, N. alboniger (with N. nanus), N. lanceolatus and N. philippensis (with N. pinskeri). Paler form kelaarti elevated to species level by some recent authors#R#R, but this was based on very small and somewhat contradictory sample size of specimens and recordings; validation of evidence needed. Race orientalis also noted as distinctive#R. Proposed races fokiensis and whiteheadi of S China not valid. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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