Probably closest to O. balli and O. alfredi. Previously considered by some to include O. angelinae and O. longicornis as races, but differences in vocalizations indicate that all are separate species. Race vandewateri sometimes treated as full species, and sometimes as race of O. angelinae, but morphology and voice suggest better regarded as race of present species. Mt Kerinci (Sumatra) foothills form described as stresemanni regarded as a race variously of present species, of O. icterorhynchus or of O. balli, or even as full species forming a species-group with either of last two: known only from single specimen collected in 1914, but has not been found since and its status is uncertain; although has been suggested as being a pale form of vandewateri, this not borne out by comparison of the few available museum specimens; specimen considered to be hybrid between O. spilocephalus vandewateri and O. rufescens, since all characters intermediate#R. Current racial divisions and geographical limits obscure, and taxonomic status of some forms uncertain#R#R; populations in Bangladesh, Nagaland and Manipur, here included in nominate, are sometimes separated as race rupchandi. Eight subspecies presently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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