Family Leaf-warblers (Phylloscopidae)

Least Concern

Mountain Warbler (Phylloscopus trivirgatus)


French: Pouillot à triple bandeau German: Südsee-Laubsänger Spanish: Mosquitero tribandeado
Other common names: Mountain Leaf-warbler

Phylloscopus trivirgatus


, 1849,



Races form two groups, differing primarily in plumage (e.g. all Philippine taxa lack bright central crownstripe and contrasting blackish lateral crown), but also genetically; treated as two full species by some authors. Situation, however, confused and complicated, with potentially many species involved#R#R; comprehensive review involving molecular, acoustic and morphological evidence needed. Eleven subspecies currently recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. t. parvirostris Stresemann, 1912 – Peninsular Malaysia (Perak S to Pahang).
  • P. t. trivirgatus Strickland, 1849 – Sunda Mountain Warbler – Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa.
  • P. t. kinabaluensis (Sharpe, 1901) – Mt Kinabalu (and possibly Muratus Mts), in N Borneo.
  • P. t. sarawacensis (Chasen, 1938) – N & NW Borneo (mountains of Trus Madi, Mulu and Nyiut, Poi Mts of W Sarawak).
  • P. t. benguetensis Ripley & Rabor, 1958 – N Philippines (N Luzon).
  • P. t. nigrorum (Moseley, 1891) – Philippine Mountain Warbler – NC & C Philippines (S Luzon, Mindoro, Panay, Negros).
  • P. t. peterseni Salomonsen, 1962 – W Philippines (Palawan).
  • P. t. diuatae Salomonsen, 1953 – Camiguin Sur and NE Mindanao (Mt Hilong-Hilong), in S Philippines.
  • P. t. malindangensis (Mearns, 1909) – Zamboanga Peninsula and Mt Malindang, in NW Mindanao.
  • P. t. flavostriatus Salomonsen, 1953 – Mt Katanglad and mountains of Misamis Oriental Province, in NC Mindanao.
  • P. t. mindanensis (E. J. O. Hartert, 1903) – S Mindanao (Mt Apo, Mt Mayo).
  • Descriptive notes

    10–11 cm; 9 g. A small to medium-sized leaf-warbler with plain upper­parts and yellow underparts, and (except in Philippines) striking head pattern. Nominate race... read more


    Song is an unmusical “tisiwi-tsuwiri-swit” or more rapid, slurred and high-pitched... read more


    Broadleaf montane and submontane evergreen forest, casuarina (Casuarina) forest and... read more

    Food and feeding

    Food consists mostly of small insects and larvae, especially ants (Hymenoptea) and lepidopteran caterpillars. Forages alone and in pairs,... read more


    Feb–Aug. Nest is a dome-shaped ball, which is placed on ground or in hole in bank. Clutch 2–3 eggs; no information available on... read more



    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Common to locally abundant; common in Sumatra and on Sumbawa.

    Recommended citation

    Clement, P. (2019). Mountain Warbler (Phylloscopus trivirgatus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 19 June 2019).