Mount Merapi, west Sumatra.
Montane sibling of Z. palpebrosus. Despite enormous number of proposed names and isolation of many populations, hardly any constant geographical variation exists; some authors prefer to recognize just two races (nominate and obstinatus) in Wallacea, and some include most or all of Sumatran, Javan and Philippine races in nominate. Race pectoralis appears to represent a transitional population from pale-bellied to yellow-bellied, but sufficiently homogeneous to justify own name. Birds on Panay (WC Philippines) may represent an as yet unnamed race, and those in Sula Archipelago of uncertain racial identity#R, provisionally included in nominate; further study required. Birds from Marinduque (NC Philippines) described as race gilli and formerly placed with present species, but now regarded as synonym of nominate race of Z. meyeni. Otherwise, proposed Moluccan races seranensis (described from Mt Pinaia, on Seram) and ternatanus (Ternate) both synonymized with obstinatus; sarasinorum (Mt Klabat, NE Sulawesi), oriochares (Latimojong Mts, SC Sulawesi), origenes (Wawa Karaeng, S Sulawesi), foghaensis (Mt Madang, Buru), korinchi (Mt Kerinci, Sumatra), sindorensis (Mt Tjerima, W Java), minimus (Mt Papandayan, W Java), neglectus (near Tosari, E Java), florensis (Geli Mutu, Flores) and steini (Mt Ramelan, E Timor) all subsumed into nominate; and, in Philippines, finitimus (Cuernos de Negros, S Negros) merged with pectoralis. Nine subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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