J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
“Russia, Sibiria, Persico etiam littore maris Caspii”.
Despite its all-white plumage, apparently linked more closely to Southern Hemisphere species (C. melancoryphus, C. atratus) than to N swans. Hybridization with C. atratus recorded in captivity. Monotypic.
British Is, C & N Europe E through C Asia to NC & NE China and Mongolia; winters in S of range, reaching Middle East, and rarely N Africa and Pakistan.
Feral populations in North America, N Japan, Morocco, South Africa, SW & E Australia and New Zealand.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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