America = South Carolina, USA.
Sometimes considered conspecific with C. nigrogularis. Known to hybridize with Callipepla squamata in the wild#R. Several races have at times been considered full species, but, despite striking differences between taxa at the geographical extremes, no convincing definition of species boundaries has yet been made, perhaps in part owing to specimen diaspora; further research needed. Validity of race nelsoni questionable; sometimes included within insignis. Race cubanensis unstable, and may be based on introductions. Proposed race castaneus known only from type specimen (locality unknown), which is thought possibly to have been an erythristic individual. Proposed race †insulanus (Key West, in Florida, where now extinct), inseparable from floridanus. Subspecific name coyoleos usually amended to coyolcos, but former is the original spelling#R. Twenty-two subspecies recognized.
Introduced to British Columbia (Canada), Hawaii, New Zealand (probably taylori), Croatia, France (apparently not self-sustaining)#R and Iberia, with singing birds recorded several times in UK#R#R#R; also (virginianus) to NW Italy; also (taylori) to Washington, Oregon and Idaho, in NW USA, and (cubanensis) to Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Bahamas and other Caribbean islands; may have been introduced to I of Pines and Cuba, although this population usually awarded subspecific status (cubanensis, above).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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