Temminck and Schlegel, 1845,
Until recently was considered conspecific with N. scutulata (then incorporating also N. randi and N. obscura), but differs distinctly in vocal characters and in part also mensurally#R, and species status accepted here even though these may not be enough (or not sufficiently enumerated) to score 7 under the scoring system used herein. Population previously named ussuriensis now treated as florensis; sometimes synonymized with nominate. Birds from Ryukyu Is, Taiwan and Lanyu I previously separated as race totogo, but recent genetic analysis#R (including known breeders, known migrants, and topotypes of sedentary individuals on Lanyu) revealed co-existence of two clades in E Asia, one containing resident breeders in Taiwan, the other containing migrants present only in non-breeding season (at which time the two were found together); topotypes of sedentary totogo from Lanyu clustered with nominate japonica, suggesting that treatment of former as a race unwarranted; sedentary Taiwanese population may represent a unique cryptic lineage. Proposed form macroptera (described from Mindoro) included within nominate#R. Two subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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