Hitherto treated as conspecific with N. hemispila, and usually also with N. multipunctata. Nominate race intergrades with macrorhynchos in Urals. Several populations have been separated racially on basis of minor differences and are best treated as synonyms: in Europe, wolfi (Balkans) and relicta (Germany S to Serbia) included in nominate; in Asia, kamchatkensis (Kamchatka), altaicus (S Altai) and sassii (L Baikal region) in macrorhynchos. Four subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
Only subscribers are able to see the bibliography. Login or Subscribe to get access to a lot of extra features!